The Nobel organization announced this Friday, 8, that journalists Maria Ressa and Dmitri Muratov were the winners of the Nobel Peace Prize 2021.
The first Nobel Peace Prize was awarded in 1901, after a request made in the will of Alfred Nobel, who would die in 1896. Nobel was a Swedish chemist, inventor and entrepreneur, and a controversial figure for having invented explosives that would be widely used in warfare.
The Nobel organization does not officially release the name of the nominee, and the choice of winners is made by a committee based in Oslo, Norway.
To date, four former US presidents have won the Nobel Peace Prize (Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, Jimmy Carter e Barack Obama). The country is also the country with the highest number of Nobel Prize winners, including in other categories, with more than 370 awarded. Then come the United Kingdom, Germany and France.
The most recent recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in South America was the former president of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos, by the peace agreements with the FARC. Including all categories, they have citizens or organizations awarded with a Nobel, in addition to Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Peru and Venezuela.
See the latest Nobel Peace Prize winners:
2020: The 2020 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the United Nations World Food Programme, “for its efforts to combat hunger, for its contribution to improving peace conditions in conflict-affected areas and for acting as a driving force in efforts to prevent the use of hunger as a weapon of war and conflict”.
In an interview with EXAM, Daniel Balaban, head of the WFP in Brazil, spoke about the award last year and warned about the growing hunger situation in Brazil. “From the slums of Rio de Janeiro to countries in Africa, fighting hunger is avoiding wars,” he said.
2019: Ethiopia’s Prime Minister, Abiy Ahmed, for his role in ending his country’s conflicts with neighboring Eritrea.
2018: Congolese gynecologist Denis Mukwege and Yazidi activist Nadia Murad received the award for their work against sexual violence in wartime environments.
2017: The International Campaign for the Abolition of Nuclear Weapons (Ican) was chosen for its work against nuclear weapons.
2016: To the former Colombian president, Juan Manuel Santos, for their efforts and their resolute efforts to end the more than 50-year civil war with the FARC in Colombia.
2015: Quartet for Tunisian National Dialogue, for “its decisive contribution to building a plural democracy in Tunisia after the 2011 Jasmine Revolution”. The quartet is composed of four representatives
2014: The Pakistani Malala Yousafzai and the Indian Kailash Satyarthi were awarded for their fight against oppression against children and young people and for their defense of education for all young people.
2013: Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OIAC) for its efforts to rid the planet of weapons of mass destruction.
2012: The European Union was chosen for the project that “for more than six decades has contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe”.
2011: Liberians Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and Leymah Gbowee, and Yemeni Tawakkol Karman for their fight for the security of women and for their right to participate in the peace process.
2010: Imprisoned Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo was awarded “for his persistent and peaceful efforts in favor of human rights in China.”
2009: the american president Barack Obama he was chosen in his first year in office for, according to the committee, “extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples”. Obama was the first black president in US history, but his choice is also criticized for the American president starting and extending American wars in the following years.
2008: The Finn Martti Ahtisaari for his numerous mediations of peace around the world.
2007: Former US Vice President Al Gore and the panel of HIM-HER-IT on Climate Change were awarded “for their efforts to expand knowledge about global warming.”
2006: Bangladeshi banker Muhammad Yunus and its special microcredit institution, the Grameen Bank, were chosen “because it allows a significant portion of the population to obtain the means to lift themselves out of poverty.” Its main differential is offering financing at more competitive interest rates for small entrepreneurs in poor countries who would not otherwise be able to obtain credit to undertake.
2005: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its director, Egyptian diplomat Mohamed ElBaradei, “for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest manner possible”
2004: Kenyan environmental activist and teacher Wangari Muta Maathai was chosen “for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace”.
2003: Iranian activist Shirin Ebadi “for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She focused especially on the fight for the rights of women and children”.
2002: Former US President Jimmy Carter (President 1977-1981) was chosen “for his decades of tireless effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development ”.
One of Carter’s main achievements was brokering peace talks between Israel and Egypt in 1978, in addition to his humanitarian work after leaving the presidency.
2001: Those chosen this year were the United Nations (UN) and Kofi Annan, then general director, “for his work for a better organized and more peaceful world”.
2000: Former South Korean President Kim Dae-jung (president 1988-2003) was chosen “for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular.” Dae-jung came to be called “Nelson Mandela of South Korea”.
1999: The humanitarian organization Médecins Sans Frontières was chosen this year, “in recognition of the organization’s pioneering humanitarian work on several continents”
1998: John Hume, former Northern Ireland representative in the UK Parliament, and David Trimble, then Prime Minister of Northern Ireland, were chosen “for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland”. Hume and Trimble shared the prize for signing a peace agreement that ended clashes between Catholics and Protestants. Ireland, by agreement, was divided into Northern Ireland (part of the United Kingdom) and Ireland (independent).
1997: The International Campaign for the Elimination of Landmines (ICBL) and its founder, the American Jody Williams, were chosen “for their work in the prohibition and removal of anti-personnel mines”. Anti-personnel mines, made to harm other human beings in war, were banned after a 1997 treaty signed by 150 countries.
1996: Bishop Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo and former president José Ramos-Horta were awarded “for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in Timor-Leste”.
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